Edward Durell Stone (March 9, 1902 – August 6, 1978) was a twentieth century American architect. An early proponent of modern architecture in the United States, he designed buildings throughout the world. Stone’s notable works include Radio City Music Hall and the Museum of Modern Art, both in New York City, the United States Embassy in New Delhi, India, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. The Standard Oil Building was constructed as the new headquarters of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, which had previously been housed at South Michigan Avenue and East 9th Street. When it was completed in 1973, it was the tallest building in Chicago and the fourth-tallest in the world, earning it the nickname “Big Stan”. (A year later, the Sears Tower took the title as Chicago’s and world’s tallest.) The building employs a tubular steel-framed structural system with V-shaped perimeter columns to resist earthquakes, reduce sway, minimize column bending, and maximize column-free space. This construction method was also used for the former World Trade Center towers in New York City.
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